During World War One, 19 million men were wounded, and an estimated 500,000 amputations were performed. As frightening as these numbers are, men who lived long enough to receive medical attention had a relatively high survival rate.
This success was due in part to modern innovations such as antiseptics.
Other medical tools included:
During the 1910s, the two anesthetics available were ether and chloroform. Both medicines had been available since the 1840s.
Ether numbs the patient but does not cause unconsciousness. Chloroform works more quickly, but there is a higher risk of death if the wrong amount is used. It is applied using a mask, sponge or cloth.
Dental procedures were conducting using nitrous oxide.
Shrapnel caused a number of facial injuries. Men lost noses, eyes, lower jaw bones, sometimes even the entire front of their face. These men were scarred for life and doctors sought ways to alleviate their suffering. This led to the birth of the field of reconstructive surgery.
Dr. Harold Gillies asked for permission from the British Army Medical Corps to establish a facial reconstruction hospital. Permission was granted and Gillies treated thousands of patients. His goal was give patients as natural a look as possible.
Many techniques were discovered via experimentation. Procedures often involved multiple steps that had to be done over a period of years. There were no mirrors in the hospital so men could not see their appearance.
A large number of the surgeries were successful, but unfortunately, many were not. Lessons learned from the setbacks was applied in future surgeries.
Often the psychological scars worse than the physical ones of men who sustained severe facial injuries. Many had difficulty being seen in public, holding down jobs and maintaining relationships.
Portable x-ray machines allowed medical personnel to see what was going on inside a patient’s body before surgery was performed. X-ray machines were less than 20 years old at the time and allowed physicians a glimpse into a patient’s body without surgery.
X-rays could be taken by doctors or nurses, but soon the new position of radiographer was born.
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